PCOS Article Footnotes

Acne and Diet

Smith RN et al A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial, Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):107-15
Smith R et al A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of a low glycemic load diet on hormonal markers of acne: a nonrandomized, parallel, controlled feeding trial, Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Jun;52(6):718-26
Cordain L et al, Acne vulgaris: a disease of Western civilization., Arch Dermatol.,2002;138(12):1584-90
Mahoney D, Got Milk? Got Acne? New Research Suggests Link, Family Practice News, June 1, 2004:54.
Melnik B et al, Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, Exp Dermatol. 2009 Oct;18(10):833-41
Danby FW, Acne, dairy and cancer: The 5alpha-P link, Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Jan;1(1):12-6
Melnik B, Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies, J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009 Apr;7(4):364-70
Melnik B, Milk--the promoter of chronic Western diseases, Med Hypotheses. 2009 Jun;72(6):631-9
Logan AC,Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Acne, Arch Dermatol, July 2003;139:941-942

PCOS and Acupuncture

(1) Stener-Victorin E et al, Effects of electro-acupuncture on anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 Mar;79(3):180-8
(2) Paulus, WE et al, Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapy, Fertility and Sterility, April 2002, 77(4):721-724
(3) Stener-Victorin E et al, Low-frequency Electro-Acupuncture and Physical Exercise Decrease High Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print]

BPA

Tarantino G et al, Bisphenol A in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Association with Liver-Spleen Axis.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Jul 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Kandaraki E et al, Endocrine Disruptors and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Elevated Serum Levels of Bisphenol A in Women with PCOS, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print].
Nishikawa M et al, Placental transfer of conjugated bisphenol A and subsequent reactivation in the rat fetus., Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Sep;118(9):1196-203
Cabaton NJ et al, Perinatal Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Levels of Bisphenol-A Decreases Fertility and Fecundity in CD-1 Mice, Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Nov 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Fernandez, MO et al, Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Reproductive and Endocrine Alterations Resembling the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Adult Rats. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Sep;118(9):1217-22
Braun JM et al, Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and early childhood behavior, Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Dec;117(12):1945-52
Calafat, AM et al, Exposure of the US population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003-2004, Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jan;116(1):39-44
Alonso-Magdalena P et al, The Estrogenic Effect of Bisphenol-A Disrupts the Pancreatic ß-Cell Function in vivo and Induces Insulin Resistance, Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jan;114(1):106-12
Sugiura-Ogasawara, M et al, Exposure to bisphenol A is associated with recurrent miscarriage, Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2325-9
Murray, TJ et al, Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure, Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Apr-May;23(3):383-90
Susiarjo, M et al, A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse, PLoS Genet. 2007 Jan 12;3(1):e5
Newbold, RR et al, Long-term Adverse Effects of Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Murine Female Reproductive Tract, Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Aug-Sep;24(2):253-8
Hugo, ER et al, Bisphenol A at Environmentally Relevant Doses Inhibits Adiponectin Release from Human Adipose Tissue Explants and Adipocytes, Environmental Health Perspectives, in press, 2008
Takeuchi T et al, Positive relationship between androgen and the endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, in normal women and women with ovarian dysfunction, Endocr J. 2004 Apr;51(2):165-9
Wang Y et al. Local effect of bisphenol A on the estradiol synthesis of ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016 May 17:1-5.

L-Carnitine and PCOS

Foitzik K et al, L-carnitine-L-tartrate promotes human hair growth in vitro, Exp Dermatol. 2007 Nov;16(11):936-45.
Stephens FB et al, New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle, J Physiol. 2007 Jun 1;581(Pt 2):431-44.
Reda E et al, The carnitine system and body composition, Acta Diabetol. 2003 Oct;40 Suppl 1:S106-13.
Rajasekar P et al, Beneficial impact of L-carnitine in liver: a study in a rat model of syndrome X, Amino Acids. 2007 Aug 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Power, RA et al, Carnitine revisited: potential use as adjunctive treatment in diabetes, Diabetologia. 2007 Apr;50(4):824-32.
Rajasekar P et al, L-Carnitine inhibits protein glycation in vitro and in vivo: evidence for a role in diabetic management, Acta Diabetol. 2007 Jun;44(2):83-90.
Lakhani K et al, Microvascular dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Hum Reprod. 2005 Nov;20(11):3219-24.
Shankar SS et al, L-carnitine may attenuate free fatty acid-induced endothelial dysfunction, Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:189-97.
Borum PR. Carnitine. Ann Rev Nutr 1983; 3: 233–259
Warshaw JB, Curry E. Comparison of serum carnitine and ketone body concentrations in breast and in formula-fed infants. J Pediatr 1980; 97: 122–125
Jun DW et al, Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by carnitine via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction. Liver Int. 2011 Oct;31(9):1315-24
Volek JS et al, Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults, Am J Cardiol, 2008; 102(10): 1413-17
Miguel-Carrasco JL et al The Role of Inflammatory Markers in the Cardioprotective Effect of L-Carnitine in L-NAME-Induced Hypertension, Am J Hypertens. 2008 Sep 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Malaguarnera M et al, l-Carnitine Supplementation to Diet: A New Tool in Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-A Randomized and Controlled Clinical Trial, Am J Gastroenterol, 2010 Jan 12; [Epub ahead of print]
Hooshmand S et al Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats, Phytomedicine. 2008 Aug;15(8):595-601
Bernard A et al, L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2008; 63(10): 1027-33
Molfino A et al, Caloric restriction and L-carnitine administration improves insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose metabolism, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2010 May-Jun;34(3):295-9
Fenkei SM et al, Serum total L-carnitine levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Hum Reprod. 2008 Jul;23(7):1602-6.
Mingorance C et al, Critical update for the clinical use of L-carnitine analogs in cardiometabolic disorders, Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011; 7: 169?176
Sachan DS et al, Decreasing Oxidative Stress with Choline and Carnitine in Women, J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Jun;24(3):172-6.

Cinnamon and PCOS

Wang JG, The effect of cinnamon extract on insulin resistance parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study, Fertil Steril. 2007 Jul;88(1):240-3
Kort DH et al. Preliminary evidence that cinnamon improves menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Nov;211(5):487.e1-6.
Khan A et al. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3215-8.
Mang, B et al, Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2, Eur J Clin Invest, 2006; 36(5): 340-4.
Vanschoonbeek K et al, Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients. J Nutr 2006;136:977-80.

Depression, Anxiety and Mood Disorders

Rodrigues CE et al, Evaluation of common mental disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relationship with body mass index. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2012 Oct;34(10):442-6.
Hung J et al. Risk of psychiatric disorders following polycystic ovary syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2014 May 9;9(5):e97041.
Farrell K et al. Insulin resistance, obesity, inflammation, and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: biobehavioral mechanisms and interventions. Fertil Steril. 2010 Oct;94(5):1565-74.
Berk M et al. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from? BMC Med. 2013 Sep 12;11:200.
Ryan JP et al. A neural circuitry linking insulin resistance to depressed mood. Psychosom Med. 2012 Jun;74(5):476-82.

Fish Oil, Cod Liver Oil and PCOS

(1) Denkins, Y, Experimental Biology 2002 Conference, April 20-24 2002, www.faseb.org/meetings/eb2002
(2) Strolien, LH et al, Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by a high-fat feeding in rats, Sciuence, 1987, 21(237):885-8
(3) Festa, A et al, Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Reistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS), Circulation, 2000, 4(102):42-7
(4) Cukier C et al, Biological activity of fish oil. Arq Gastroenterol 1996;33(3):173-8
(5) Hu FB, et al, Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women, JAMA. 2002, 10;287(14):1815-21
(6) Yosefy C, et al, The effect of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids and hemostasis in hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic patients with and without diabetes mellitus Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999 Aug;61(2):83-7
(7) Harris WS, Dietary fish oil and blood lipids. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996 Feb;7(1):3-7.
(8) Sirtori CR, et al, N-3 fatty acids do not lead to an increased diabetic risk in patients with hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance. Italian Fish Oil Multicenter Study Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Jun;65(6):1874-81.
(9) 27. Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Chisholm DJ, et al. Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats. Relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipid. Diabetes 1991;40:280-289.
(10). Ajiro K, Sawamura M, Ikeda K, et al. Beneficial effects of fish oil on glucose metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000;27:412-415.
(11) Hibbeln JR, Salem N Jr. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jul;62(1):1-9
(12) Delarue J, Matzinger O, Binnert C, Schneiter P, Chiolero R, Tappy L. Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Jun;29(3):289-95

Gymnema

1.Gymnema sylvestre. Altern Med Rev, 1999. 4(1): p. 46-7.
2.Persaud, S.J., et al., Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability. J Endocrinol, 1999. 163(2): p. 207-12.
3.Baskaran, K., et al., Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. J Ethnopharmacol, 1990. 30(3): p. 295-300.
4.Shanmugasundaram, E.R., et al., Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol, 1990. 30(3): p. 281-94.
5.Gymnema Sylvestre. 2008.
6.Glueck, C.J., et al., Metformin-induced resumption of normal menses in 39 of 43 (91%) previously amenorrheic women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolism, 1999. 48(4): p. 511-9.
7.Treloar, A.E., et al., Variation of the human menstrual cycle through reproductive life. Int J Fertil, 1967. 12(1 Pt 2): p. 77-126.

Green Coffee

Lai YH et al, Independent Effects of Body Fat and Inflammatory Markers on Ventricular Geometry, Midwall Function, and Atrial Remodeling. Clin Cardiol. 2014 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Kanno Y et al, Chlorogenic acid attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice. Int Heart J. 2013;54(3):176-80.
Olthof MR et al, Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):532-8.
Vinson JA et al, Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2012;5:21-7.
Ludwig IA et al, Catabolism of coffee chlorogenic acids by human colonic microbiota. Biofactors. 2013 Nov;39(6):623-32.
Ho L et al, Dietary supplementation with decaffeinated green coffee improves diet-induced insulin resistance and brain energy metabolism in mice. Nutr Neurosci. 2012 Jan;15(1):37-45.
Zhao Y et al, Antihypertensive effects and mechanisms of chlorogenic acids. Hypertens Res. 2012 Apr;35(4):370-4
Ong KW et al, Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor to the beneficial effects of coffee on diabetes. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32718.
Shimoda H et al, Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Mar 17;6:9.
Gonthier MP et al, Chlorogenic acid bioavailability largely depends on its metabolism by the gut microflora in rats. J Nutr. 2003 Jun;133(6):1853-9.
Kempf K et al, Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr;91(4):950-7.

Green Tea

Hintzpeter J et al, Green Tea and One of Its Constituents, Epigallocatechine-3-gallate, Are Potent Inhibitors of Human 11ß-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 3;9(1):e84468.
Josic J et al, Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2010 Nov 30;9:63.
Wang H et al, Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Apr;18(4):773-9.
Richards JC et al, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases maximal oxygen uptake in adult humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Apr;42(4):739-44.
Hozawa A et al, Green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress in a general population: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1390-6. Epub 2009 Sep 30.
Shaw JC. Green tea polyphenols may be useful in the treatment of androgen-mediated skin disorders. Arch Dermatol. 2001 May;137(5):664.
Liao S et al, Selective inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes by tea epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Sep 25;214(3):833-8.
Roshdy E et al, Treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with green tea extract: a pilot randomized controlled clinical study. Int J Womens Health. 2013 Aug 7;5:477-86.
Chan CC et al, Effects of Chinese green tea on weight, and hormonal and biochemical profiles in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome--a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2006 Jan;13(1):63-8.
Nagao T et al, A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jun;15(6):1473-83.
Forester SC et al, Inhibition of starch digestion by the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Nov;56(11):1647-54. Chantre P et al, Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity, Phytomedicine, 2002, 9(6):3-8
Dulloo, AG et al, Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans1,2,3, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999, 70(6,):1040-1045
Wu, CH et al, Relationship Among Habitual Tea Consumption, Percent Body Fat, and Body Fat Distribution, Obes Res, 2003;11(9):1088-1095
Mombaini E et al. The Impact of Green Tea Supplementation on Anthropometric Indices and Inflammatory Cytokines in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Phytother Res. 2017 May;31(5):747-754.

Hirsutism

(1) Carmina, E, Anti-androgens for the treatment of hirsutism, Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 2002, 11(3):357-63
(2) Bernasconi D et al, The impact of obesity on hormonal parameters in hirsute and nonhirsute women, Metabolism, 1996, 45(1):72-5
(3) Knowler, W et al, Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin, NEJM, 2002, 346:393-403
(4) Liao S, The medicinal action of androgens and green tea epigallocatechin gallate, Hong Kong Med J, 2001, 7(4):369-74AB
(5) Kiddy, D et al, Improvement in endocrine and ovarian functin during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Clin Endocrinol, 1992, 36(1):105-11
(6) McCarty MF, Complementary measures for promoting insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, Med Hypotheses, 1998, 51(6):451-64
(7) Hartman TJ et al, Association between serum alpha-tocopherol and serum androgens and estrogens in older men, Nutr Cancer, 1999;35(1):10-5
(8) Sugimoto, Y et al, Cations inhibit specifically type I 5-alpha-reductase found in human skin, J Invest Dermatol, 1995, 104(5):775-8
(9) Stamatiadis, D et al, Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity in human skin by zinc and azelaic acid, Br J Dermatol, 1988, 119(5):627-32
(10) Leklem, J, Vitamin B6, Modern nutrition in health and disease, 8th ed., Lea & Febiger, 1994, p.384
(11) Bermond, P, Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6, Acta Vitaminol Enzymol, 1982, 4(1-2):45-54
(12) McIntosh, EN, Treatment of women with the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with pyridoxine (vitamin B6), J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1976, 42(6):1192-5
(13) Vescovi, PP et al, Pyridoxine (Vit. B6) decreases opioids-induced hyperprolactinemia, Horm Metabol Res, 1985, 17:46-7
(14) Bender, D et al, Effects of vitamin B6 deficiency and repletion on the uptake of steroid hormones into uterus slices and isolated liver cells of rats, Br J Nutr, 1989, 61(3):619-28
(15) Levin RM, A scientific basis for the therapeutic effects of pygeum africanum and serenoa repens,Urol Res, 2000, 28(3):201-9
(16) Krzeski T et al, Combined extracts of urtica dioica and pygeum africanum in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: double-blind comparison of two doses, Clin Ther, 1993, 15(6):1011-20
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(18) Marshall, K, Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical considerations, Altern Med Rev, 2001 6(3):272-92
(19) Speroff, I et al, Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility, 6th ed., Lippincott William & Wilkins, 1999, p.544
(20) Zacche MM et al, Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jun 23:1-6
(21) McAuley, K et al, Intensive lifestyle changes are necessary to improve insulin sensitivity: A randomized controlled trial, Diabetes Care, 2002, 25(3):445-52

D-Chiro Inositol and PCOS

(1) Kawa, JM et al, Buckwheat concentrate reduces serum glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Dec 3;51(25):7287-91.
(2) Nestler, JE et al, Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome, Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 29;340(17):1314-20.
(3) Iuorno, MJ et al, Effects of d-chiro-inositol in lean women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov-Dec;8(6):417-23.
(4) Gerli S et al, Effects of inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Nov-Dec;7(6):151-9

Inositol

Zacche MM et al, Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009 Jun 23:1-6
Costantino D et al, Metabolic and hormonal effects of myo-inositol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind trial, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Mar-Apr;13(2):105-10
Papaleo E et al, Contribution of myo-inositol to reproduction, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 Dec;147(2):120-3
Nestler JE et al, Role of inositolphosphoglycan mediators of insulin action in the polycystic ovary syndrome, J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13 Suppl 5:1295-8
Baillargeon JP et al, Uncoupling between insulin and release of a d-chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycan mediator of insulin action in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010 Apr;8(2):127-36
Papaleo E et al, Myo-inositol in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A novel method for ovulation induction, Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 Oct 10;:1-4 [Epub ahead of print]
Ciotta L et al, Effects of myo-inositol supplementation on oocyte's quality in PCOS patients: a double blind trial, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 May;15(5):509-14
Genazzani AD et al, Myo-inositol administration positively affects hyperinsulinemia and hormonal parameters in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, Gynecol Endocrinol. 2008 Mar;24(3):139-44
Gerli S et al, Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS, Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Sep-Oct;11(5):347-54
Papaleo E et al Myo-inositol may improve oocyte quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. A prospective, controlled, randomized trial, Fertil Steril. 2008 May 5. [Epub ahead of print]

Melatonin

Tamura H et al Melatonin and the ovary: physiological and pathophysiological implications, Fertil Steril. 2008 Sep 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Bellipanni G et al Effects of melatonin in perimenopausal and menopausal women: our personal experience, Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1057:393-402
Luboshitzky R et al Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in hyperandrogenic women: the effect of cyproterone acetate-ethinyl estradiol treatment, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2004 Feb;112(2):102-7

Metformin

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(5) Knowler, WC et al, Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin, N Engl J Med, 2002, 346(6):393-403
(6) Glueck, CJ et al, Metformin-induced resumption of normal menses in 39 of 43 (91%) previously amenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Metabolism, 1999, 48:511-519
(7) Glueck, CJ et al, Metformin to restore normal menses in oligo-amenorrheic teenage girls with polycystic ovary sundrome (PCOS), J Adolesc Health, 2001, 29(3):160-9
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(24) Boss, A et al, Living With PCOS, Addicus Books, 2001, p. 58
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(34) Fulghesu, AM et al, N-acetyl-cysteine treatment improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Fertil Steril, 2002, 77(6):1128-35
(35) Kelly, GS, Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional interventions, Altern Med Rev, 2000, 5(2):109-32
(36) Nestler JE et al, Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome, N Engl J Med, 1999, 29;340(17):1314-20
(37) Bauman, WA et al, Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin, Diabetes Care, 2000, 23(9):1227-31

Miscarriage

Glueck, CJ et al, Polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility, familial thrombophilia, familial hypofibrinolysis, recurrent loss of in vitro fertilized embryos, and miscarriage, Fertil Steril, 2000, 74(2):394-7
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LaTasha, B et al, Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, Fertil Steril, 2002, 78:487-90
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Hirahara, F et al, Hyperprolactinemic recurrent miscarriage and results of randomized bromocriptine treatment trials, Fertil Steril, 1998, 70(2):246-52
Glueck, CJ, et al, Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce first-trimester spontaneous abortion: a pilot study, Fertil Steril, 2001, 75(1):46-52
Cano, F et al, Oocyte quality in polycystic ovaries revisited: identification of a particular subgroup of women, J Assist Reprod Genet, 1997, 14(5):254-61
Marks, J, Critical appraisal of the therapeutic value of alpha-tocopherol, Vit Horm, 1962, 20:573-98
Weed, S, Wise Woman Herbal for the Childbearing Years, 1986, Ashtree Publishing, Woodstock, NY

Multi-Vitamin and Mineral

(1) (1) Chavarro JE et al, Use of multivitamins, intake of B vitamins, and risk of ovulatory infertility, Fertil Steril. 2008 Mar;89(3):668-76
(2) Li Y, et al, Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women, Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]

NAC (N-Acetyl-Cysteine)

(1) Rizk, AY et al, N-acetyl-cysteine is a novel adjuvant to clomiphene citrate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2005 Feb;83(2):367-70
Nasr A, Effect of N-acetyl-cysteine after ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS women: a pilot study, Reprod Biomed Online. 2009 Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Badaway A et al, N-Acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-over trial, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(2):218-22.
(2) N-acetyl-cysteine treatment improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Fulghesu AM, et al, Fertil Steril 2002 Jun;77(6):1128-35
(3) de Oliveira CP et al, Combination of N-acetylcysteine and metformin improves histological steatosis and fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Hepatol Res. 2008;38(2):159-65
(4) Hao L et al, Adverse effects of advanced glycation end products on embryonal development, Acta Med Okayama. 2008 Apr;62(2):93-9
(5) Kava C et al, Advanced oxidation protein products are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: relationship with traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, Fertil Steril. 2009 Oct;92(4):1372-7
(6) Basyigit I, Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on peroxidative changes of the fetal rat lungs whose mothers were exposed to cigarette smoke, Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007 Feb;26(2):99-103
(7)Wilkes JM, Acetaminophen overdose in pregnancy, South Med J. 2005 Nov;98(11):1118-22
(8) Ventura P, et al, Urinary and plasma homocysteine and cysteine levels during prolonged oral N-acetylcysteine therapy, Pharmacology, 2003 Jun;68(2):105-14

NAFLD

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Setji TL et al, Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May;91(5):1741-7
Brown AJ et al, Polycystic ovary syndrome and severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: beneficial effect of modest weight loss and exercise on liver biopsy findings, Endocr Pract. 2005 Sep-Oct;11(5):319-24
Saverymuttu SH et al, Ultrasound scanning in the detection of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;292:13?15.
Barchetta I et al, Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and low 25(OH) vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes. BMC Med. 2011 Jul 12;9:85.
Sanna C et al. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Extra-Hepatic Cancers. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 May 12;17(5).
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Assy N et al, Presence of coronary plaques in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Radiology. 2010 Feb;254(2):393-400
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Masterson GS et al, Review article: omega-3 fatty acids - a promising novel therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Cussons AJ et al, Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;94(10):3842-8
Capanni M et al, Prolonged omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther., 2006; 23(8): 1143-51
Tanaka N et al Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid treatment improves nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr;42(4):413-8
Spadaro L et al Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Dig Liver Dis. 2008 Mar;40(3):194-9
Targher G et al, Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations and liver histology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Aug 21; [Epub ahead of print]

Pinitol

Sources: Sivakumar S et al, Pancreatic tissue protective nature of D-Pinitol studied in streptozotocin-mediated oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rats, Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Nov 10;622(1-3):65-70
Gao Y et al. Effects of D-Pinitol on Insulin Resistance through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Jul 8;63(26):6019-26.
Sethi G et al, Pinitol targets nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway leading to inhibition of gene products associated with proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis, Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jun;7(6):1604-14
Malin SK et al. Pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome: role of hyperglycemia-induced nuclear factor-?B activation and systemic inflammation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 May 1;308(9):E770-7.
Zhao Y et al. Up-regulated expression of WNT5a increases inflammation and oxidative stress via PI3K/AKT/NF-?B signaling in the granulosa cells of PCOS patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan;100(1):201-11.
Kim MJ et al, Effect of pinitol on glucose metabolism and adipocytokines in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Sep;77 Suppl 1:S247-51
Geethan PK et al, Antihyperlipidemic effect of D-pinitol on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats, J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008 Jul;22(4):220-4
Zhou Y et al, Protective effect of pinitol against D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats fed on a high-fat diet, Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008 Jul;72(7):1657-66
Davis A et al, Effect of pinitol treatment on insulin action in subjects with insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1000-1005.
Kim JI et al, Effects of pinitol isolated from soybeans on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:456-458
Davis A, Christiansen M, Horowitz JF, Klein S, Hellerstein MK, Ostlund RE Jr. Effect of pinitol treatment on insulin action in subjects with insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1000-1005

Stress

1. Berga, SL et al, The diagnosis and treatment of stress-induced anovulation, Minerva Ginecol, 2005, 57(1):45-54
2. Epel ES, et al, Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat, Psychosom Med 2000 Sep-Oct;62(5):623-32
3. Epel, E, et al, Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior, Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001 Jan;26(1):37-49
4. Berga SL et al, Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea but not other forms of anovulation display amplified cortisol concentrations. Fertil Steril. 1997 Jun;67(6):1024-30
5. Nepomnaschy PA et al, Stress and female reproductive function: a study of daily variations in cortisol, gonadotrophins, and gonadal steroids in the rural Mayan population, Am J Hum Biol, 2004, 16(5):523-32
6. Dole N et al, Maternal stress and preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jan 1;157(1):14-24
7. Oths KS et al, A prospective study of psychosocial job strain and birth outcomes. Epidemiology. 2001 Nov;12(6):744-6
8. Mulder EJ et al, Prenatal maternal stress: effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Hum Dev. 2002 Dec;70(1-2):3-14
9. Gallinelli A et al, Immunological changes and stress are associated with different implantation rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, Fert Steril, 2001, 76(1):85-91
10. Paredes A et al, Stress promotes development of ovarian cysts in rats: the possible role of sympathetic nerve activation, Endocrine, 1998, 8(3):309-315
11. Kitzinger, C et al, The thief of womanhood: women’s experience of polycystic ovarian syndrome, Soc Sci Med 2002 Feb;54(3):349-61

Vitamin D

(1) Thys-Jacobs S, Donovan D, Papadopoulos A, Sarrel P, Bilezikian JP. Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome. Steroids 1999;64:430-435.
(2) Hahn, S et al, Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations are Associated with Insulin Resistance and Obesity in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006 Nov;114(10):577-83
(3) Panidis, D et al, Serum parathyroid hormone concentrations are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Clin Chem, 2006, 51(9):1691-7
(4) Raghuramulu N et al, Vitamin D improves oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in human diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr 1992;13:45-51.
(5) Borissova AM et al, The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Clin Pract 2003;57:258-261.
(6) Chiu, KC et al, Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction, Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, May 2004; 79:820-825
(7) Armas LAG et al, Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:5387-5391.
Jorde R et al, Cross-sectional and longitudinal relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and body mass index: the Tromsø study, Eur J Nutr. 2010 Mar 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Pilz S et al, Vitamin D deficiency and myocardial diseases, Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Mar 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Alshammari A et al, Does the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome increase the risk of obstetrical complications in women with gestational diabetes?, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 Aug 27:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Bodnar LM et al, Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;92(9):3517-22
Autier P et al, Vitamin D Supplementation and Total Mortality: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Arch Intern Med. 2007 Sep 10;167(16):1730-7
Garland CF et al Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):708-11
Jorde R et al Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial, J Intern Med. 2008 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Wehr E, Association of hypovitaminosis D with metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Oct;161(4):575-82.
Wehr E et al, Vitamin D-associated polymorphisms are related to insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 May;164(5):741-9.

Vitex (Chasteberry)

Loch, EG [Gynaecology in practice - A sure choice of therapy], Tjherapiewoche, 1993, 43(48):2577-80.
Loch, E, et al, [Diagnosis and treatment of dyshormonal menstrual periods in the general practice], Gynakol Praxis, 1990, 14(3):489-95.
Propping, D et al, [Treatment of corpus luteum insufficiency], Zeitscchrift Fur Allgemein, 1987, 63:932-3.
Lu A et al, Phytochemicals and reproductive function in wild female Phayre's leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus phayrei crepusculus), Horm Behav. 2011 Jan;59(1):28-36.
Ye Q et al, Casticin, a flavonoid isolated from Vitex rotundifolia, inhibits prolactin release in vivo and in vitro, Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010 Dec;31(12):1564-8.
Foitzik K et al, Prolactin and the skin: a dermatological perspective on an ancient pleiotropic peptide hormone, J Invest Dermatol. 2009 May;129(5):1071-87.
Sliutz G et al, Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells. Horm Metab Res 25: 253-5,1993.
Jarry H et al, Agnus Castus As Dopaminergous Effective Principle In Mastodynon N. Zeitschrift Phytother 12: 77-82, 1991.
Milewicz A, et al, [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study], Arzniem-Forschung, 1993 Jul;43(7):752-6.
Roeder, D, [Therapy of cyclical disorders with vitex agnus castus], Zeiterschrift fur Phytotherapie, 1994, 15(3):157-63
Bleier, VW, Therapie von zyklus-und blutungsstrorungen und weiteren endokrin bedingten erkrankungen der frau mit pflanzlichen wirkstoffen, Zbl Gynakologie, 1959, 18:701-9
Schneider HPG et al, Prolactin and the inadequate corpus luteum. In: Lisuride and Other Dopamine Agonists. Raven Press, New York, 1983. pp. 113-120.
Foitzik K et al, Human scalp hair follicles are both a target and a source of prolactin, which serves as an autocrine and/or paracrine promoter of apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression, Am J Pathol. 2006 Mar;168(3):748-56.
Schmidt JB et al, [Hyperprolactinemia and hypophyseal hypothyroidism as cofactors in hirsutism and androgen-induced alopecia in women], Hautarzt. 1991 Mar;42(3):168-72.
Choudhary MI, Antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory compounds from Vitex agnus-castus, Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23(9):1336-9.
Hajdú Z et al, Diterpenoids and flavonoids from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus and antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts and their constituents, Phytother Res. 2007 Apr;21(4):391-4.
Saglam H et al, Antioxidant activity of Vitex agnus-castus L. extracts, Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1059-60.
Ahmad B et al, Anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities of a crude extract and a pterocarpan isolated from the aerial parts of Vitex agnus-castus, Biotechnol J. 2010 Nov;5(11):1207-15.
Giss, G et al, Phytotherapeutische behandlung der akne, Haut-und Gesch, 1968, 43:645.
Mohankumar SM et al, Chronic estradiol exposure induces oxidative stress in the hypothalamus to decrease hypothalamic dopamine and cause hyperprolactinemia, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Dec 22. [Epub ahead of print].
Filho RB et al, Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia are distinct entities, Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 May;23(5):267-72.

Weight Loss

(1) Wright, CE et al, Dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Int J Obes Relat Metab Discord, 2004, 28(8):1026-32
(2)Holte, J, Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance: thrifty genes struggling with over-feeding and sedentary life style?, J Endocrinol Invest, 1998, 21(9):589-601
(3)San Millan, S et al, Association of the polycystic ovary syndrome with genomic variants related to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004, 89(6):2640-6
(4) Friedman JM, A war on obesity, not the obese. Science. 2003 Feb 7;299(5608):856-8
(5) Havel, PJ, Peripheral signals conveying metabolic information to the brain: short-term and long-term regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis, Exp Biology and Medicine, 2001, 226:963-977.
(6)Schwartz MW et al, Reduced insulin secretion: an independent predictor of body weight gain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1995, 80:1571–1576
(7) Jequier E, Leptin signaling, adiposity, and energy balance, Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2002, Jun,967:379-88
(8) Banks, WA et al, Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood-brain barrier. Diabetes. 2004 May;53(5):1253-60
(9) Wasko, R et al, Elevated ghrelin plasma levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, Horm Metab Res. 2004 Mar;36(3):170-3
(10) Schofl C, Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2002, 87(10):4607-10
(11) Moran, LJ et al, Ghrelin and measures of satiety are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome but not differentially affected by diet composition, J Clin Endocinol Metab, 2004, 89(7):3337-44
(12) Linden-Hirschberg AL et al, Impaired cholecystokinin secretion and disturbed appetite regulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004 Aug;19(2):79-87

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